Sourcing & Manufacturing

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U.S. Cotton Suppliers

Get connected with U.S. cotton yarn spinners, knit and woven fabric mills, dyers and finishers, printers, and cut & sew manufacturers.

History of Textile Printing

History of Textile Printing

From as early as 23 A.D., printing has been used to create patterns on textiles. Learn more about the history of printing.

Cotton Traceability Basics

Cotton Traceability Basics

Understand cotton, cotton trade, and manufacturing practices that can affect sourcing and traceability.

History of Yarn Manufacturing

History of Yarn

From ancient Egypt to Peru, cotton was grown and spun for textile purposes. Learn more about the history of yarn manufacturing.

Weaving Loom

History of Weaving

Learn more about the history of weaving—from the first use of a hand-operated loom to the invention of the shuttle to steam-powered looms.

Weaving Shuttles

Weaving Basics

Get a high-level look at the basics of weaving, including its history and the basic actions of interlacing yarn to form a woven textile.

Weaving Factory

Motions of the Weaving Loom

Learn about basic functions of the weaving loom—from shedding and filling insertion to beat-up and warp control.

Designing Wovens

Designing Wovens

Take a look at what goes into designing woven textiles, from conception to creation, including technical design and design implications.

U.S. Cotton Traceability

U.S. Cotton Traceability

Learn what makes U.S. cotton stand out from the rest with 100% traceability.

Cotton Trade & Sourcing

Trade Patterns for Sourcing Cotton

Where is cotton grown? Learn about the global import and export of cotton.

Knit Basics

What are the basics of knitting? Learn the different elements of the knit structure and about the two systems of knitting: weft and warp.

Plain Weave

Plain Weaves

The plain weave is the oldest, simplest, and most often used woven structure. Learn more about plain weaves and plain weave variations.

Twill Weaves

Twill Weaves

Twill fabrics have diagonal lines on the cloth face formed by floating warp yarns over filling yarns. Learn more about twill weaves and twill weaves.

Satin Weave

Satin Weaves

Satin weaves have a soft, smooth, and lustrous face with no appearance of pattern formation. Learn more about satin weaves and satin weave variations.

Jacquard Weave

Jacquard Weave

Jacquard is a patterned fabric produced on a weaving loom. Learn more about the jacquard weave.

Basics of Yarn Manufacturing

Although the spinning of cotton yarn is said to have originated in India, Egypt claims to be the first to have explored these techniques.

Independent Testing Laboratories

Independent Testing Laboratories

To support your product development process, Cotton Incorporated has compiled a list of potential independent testing laboratories.

Natural vs. Synthetic Fibers

Natural vs. Synthetic Fibers

Whether you work in agriculture, fashion or manufacturing, knowing cotton fiber is the right choice isn’t always enough. Get the science.

Traceability Technology

Cotton Traceability Technology

Learn how to evaluate technological solutions that are beneficial to the manufacturing and sourcing of cotton.

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E-Book: Classification & Tariff Engineering

Download the full e-book, Customs and International Trade Strategy: Classification & Tariff Engineering.

Free Trade Agreement Programs E-Book

E-Book: Free Trade Agreement Programs

Download the full e-book, Free Trade Agreement Programs.

U.S. Cotton Classification

Cotton Classification

The United States classes 100% of its cotton bales. Learn more about USDA cotton classification.

Cotton Fiber Development & Maturation

Cotton Fiber Development & Maturation

Cotton plant development occurs in specific stages of reproductive growth and cotton plant development must be optimized for ideal fiber production.

Cotton Gin

Cotton Fiber Harvesting & Ginning

The first step in cotton processing is harvesting, and, for the farmers, it’s an important and personal process.

USDA Cotton Fiber Classification & Evaluation

Cotton Fiber Qualities & Evaluation

Learn about the combination of instrument evaluations and skilled cotton classer assessments used to determine cotton fiber properties.

Engineered Fiber Selection Software (EFS Software)

Engineered Fiber Selection® Software

Cotton buyers and sellers improve cotton logistics, evaluation, optimization, and profitability with the EFS® System Suite of software.

History of Denim

History of Denim

From the origin of the word "jeans" to its revolution in the fashion industry to where it gets its color, learn more about the history of denim.

Dyeing Basics

Dyeing Basics

Dyes are highly colored substances that can be applied to a substrate to impart color with some degree of permanence.

Dyeing Preparation

Dyeing Preparation

Proper preparation of cotton fibers, yarns, and fabrics to undergo dyeing is critical and can prevent issues that may occur later on.

Technical & Performance Guide

This technical guide on cotton for nonwovens covers agricultural production, cotton properties and preparation, and cotton morphology and chemistry.

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Category Marketing & Insights

Discover why cotton is the right choice for various nonwoven markets and products.

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Sourcing, Supply Chain & Sustainability

Embark on your cotton supply chain journey. Force connections with sources offering an array of fiber options, nonwoven matierals, and beyond.

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Nonwoven News & Webinars

Catch up on the latest nonwoven news and recordings of past webinars covering key industry topics.

Printing Overview

Cotton Textile Printing

Learn about the history of textile printing and the impact that your choice of fiber, yarn, and fabric has on the final product.

The Lab Dip Process

The lab dipping process is the first step in developing and approving the color of a product.

Advances in Sustainable Dyeing

Advances in Sustainable Dyeing

Discover new ways to reduce water, energy, and chemicals during the dyeing process.

Denim Manufacturing Basics

Denim Manufacturing Basics

Get a large view look at the process behind denim manufacturing—from weaves and weights to non-conventional denim fabrics.

Denim Manufacturing: Yarn Processes

Denim Yarn

How denim looks and feels depends greatly on its yarn. Size, twist, ring or open-end spinning—see how they all play a role in the final look.

Cotton Fiber Quality Assurance

How Fiber Quality Impacts Your End Product

In this webinar, we will walk you through key aspects of choosing the right cotton fiber for your end product.

Yarn Manufacturing: Cleaning & Carding

Yarn Spinning: Fiber Opening & Cleaning

Explore the first steps in yarn spinning: opening and cleaning.

Yarn Spinning Batt Formation & Carding

Yarn Spinning: Batt Formation & Fiber Carding

Explore the next steps in yarn spinning: batt formation and fiber carding.

Yarn Spinning: Fiber Preparation

Yarn Spinning: Fiber Preparation

Explore the final step in yarn spinning: fiber preparation.

Yarn Spinning Processes

Yarn Spinning Processes

Learn about the three different methods for spinning: ring spinning, rotor spinning, and air-jet spinning.

Yarn Numbering

Yarn Spinning: Numbering

Yarn numbering is a term used to describe a yarn’s physical size or, more specifically, its linear density.

Yarn Twist & Ply

Yarn Spinning: Yarn Twist & Ply

No matter the spinning system employed, all yarns contain twist to hold the fibers together.

Pile Weave Velvet

Pile Weaves

Pile fabric has yarns intentionally protruding from the surface of the cloth in loops. Learn about the pile weaves corduroy, velvet, and velveteen.


Dobby Weave

Fabric made on a dobby loom allows weaves to be created using small geometric patterns. Learn about the dobby loom and dobby fabric.

Specialty Weave Beford Cord

Specialty Weaves

Learn about the specialty weaves Bedford cord, crepe, and piqué

Basics of Sweater Manufacturing

Sweater Manufacturing Basics

Learn about cut and sew, panel knitting, full fashion, and knit-to-wear garments.

Sweater Dyeing & Finishing

Sweater Manufacturing: Dyeing & Finishing

Learn about dyeing, finishing, and steaming/shaping garments.

Denim Weaving Process

Denim Weaving

When denim is placed on a loom, a number of elements and manufacturing decisions will determine the final look of the denim.

Sweater Design

Sweater Design

Learn about sweater design, including construction, color consideration, product target, and computer-aided design.

Denim Garment Construction: Spreading, Cutting, & Sewing

A lot goes into making a pair of jeans. First, the denim is spread and cut. Then, each piece must be sewn on, including belt loops and zippers.

Garment Manufacturing Garment Components

Garment Components

Learn about thread, closures, zippers, buttons, findings, trim, and shaping materials.

Garment Manufacturing Garment Markers

Garment Markers, Spreading, & Cutting

Learn about pattern engineering, marker making, and cutting methods.


Shrinkage Testing

Learn about shrinkage testing.


Knit Fabric Shrinkage

Learn about the fundamentals of knit fabric shrinkage including knitting parameters, dyeing and finishing parameters, and chemical finishing.

Denim Basic & Premium Finishing

Denim is a part of nearly everyone’s wardrobe. Simple or elaborate—fabric finishing is part of virtually every denim garment.


Shrinkage Basics

Learn about the basics of shrinkage.

Denim Finishing Machinery

Take a look at some of the machines used in denim finishing, including rotary machines, dryers, and presses.

Garment Manufacturing Garment Construction

Garment Construction

Learn about seams and stitches, t-shirt construction, jean construction, and dress-shirt construction.

Garment Manufacturing Quality Assurance

Quality Control

Learn about fabric quality and systems and inspection.

Denim Wet Finishing

Wet denim finishing uses washing techniques to alter a garment's appearance. From stonewashing to bleach to softeners—learn more about wet finishing.

Denim Dry Finishing

Dry finishing mimics what happens naturally to denim after regular wash and wear. From laser to whiskering to sanding—learn more about dry finishing.

Sustainable Denim Processing

Sustainable Denim Processing

Brands and consumers are looking for more sustainable options without sacrificing the look and feel that consumers love about their favorite jeans.

Printing Process

Printing Process

Explore the printing process from start to finish. Learn the basics of preparation, printing, drying, fixation, and afterwashing.

Printing Types

Types of Printing

Learn about the different types of printing: flatbed screen printing, rotary screen printing, engraved roller printing, and digital inkjet printing.

Sourcing the Best Cotton Products: Overcoming Shrinkage

Understanding & Overcoming Shrinkage

Controlling shrinkage of textile and apparel products impacts the design and production planning in manufacturing or sourcing products.

Sock Knitting Basics

Sock Knitting Basics

Learn about sock knitting basics, including machine components, the knitting cylinder, the knitting needle cycle, and machine types.

Special Printing Techniques

Special Techniques in Printing

Learn about special printing techniques, including resist printing, discharge printing, and transfer printing.

Compraing Printing Techniques

Comparing Printing Techniques

Take a look at the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of rotary printing, cool transfer printing, and digital printing.


Quality Testing: Construction

Learn about quality testing: fiber, yarn, and fabric.

Designing Knit Textiles

Fancy patterns and stitches add character and functionality to knit fabrics. Learn about designing knitting stripes, jacquards, and flat knits.


Quality Testing: Care & Appearance

Learn about quality testing: appearance, colorfastness, lightfastness, rating procedures, and dimensional stability.


Garment Durability: Strength

Learn about quality testing for strength and durability.

Abrasion Resistance

Garment Durability: Abrasion Resistance

Learn about quality testing for abrasion resistance.

Single Knits

Single knits are defined by the use of one needle bed. Learn how this system works across various knitting machinery.

Double Knits

With two needle beds, double knits offer different construction textile opportunities. Learn about double knits in warp and weft knitting

Garment Manufacturing Sock Components

Sock Components

Learn about sock components, including welt formation, heel pocket formation, cushioning, reinforcement, patterning, and yarn for socks.

Sock Stitch Formation

Sock Stitch Formations

Learn about stitch counts and types of stitches.

Knitting Machinery

Learn about the different types of machines for warp and weft knitting.

Sock Dyeing & Finishing

Learn about rotary drum machines, paddle machines, extraction, continuous scour and bleach, dyeing, finishing, and boarding.

Seamless and Integral Knitting

Learn about the different methods to produce seamless and whole-body garments on both circular and flat-bed machines.

Sock Packaging

Sock Inspection & Packaging

Learn about inspection and packaging.

Mechanical Finishing

Mechanical Finishing

The final appearance and serviceability of fabric may be achieved through mechanical means, such as drying, sanding, napping, shearing, and more.

Garment Manufacturing Sock Testing

Sock Testing

Learn about fit, stretch, abrasion resistance, pilling, strength, crocking, lightfastness, and colorfastness.

Chemical Finishing

Chemical Finishing

Chemical finishing can affect many qualities of a fabric or garment, through the use of softeners, hand builders, fluorochemicals, resin, and enzymes.

Sourcing the Best Cotton Products: Understanding & Overcoming Pilling

Garment Durability: Pilling

One of the most common complaints concerning product aesthetics and performance is that of pilling.


Quality Testing: Product Sampling & Conditioning

Learn about quality testing: product sampling and conditioning.


Understanding & Overcoming Skewing

Learn to improve the performance of your quality goods as textile expert Don Bailey delves into key textile techniques.

Cationic Cotton

Cationic Cotton

Cationic cotton can transform your dyeing routine into an environmentally responsible and efficient process.


Consumers Speak: Apparel Changes that Impact Satisfaction

Consumer reviews impact purchases. Learn how apparel performance issues and fabrication changes can impact shopper loyalty to brands and retailers.